This article is not sponsored and contains no referral links to any products. I acquired all mentioned hardware wallets at my own cost.

TL;DR: BitBox02 is a quality and well balanced hardware wallet good for general public and small-to-medium funds. There are some controversial design choices. …

A pro-tip regarding connecting Ledger Nano S to your Electrum desktop wallet.

If you face the following error:

Failed to create a client for this device. Make sure it is in the correct state.

error getting device info

open failed

Remember that you need to:

  1. Close Electrum wallet
  2. Run Ledger Live
  3. Install the Bitcoin app via Ledger Live
  4. Start the Bitcoin app on the Ledger — the Ledger should display “Use wallet to view accounts”
  5. Close Ledger Live
  6. Only then run your Electrum wallet and pick hardware device

Hope this helps!

The hardest thing about backups is not preventing data loss but preventing data leakage, either by accident or by targeted attack.


  • Locally encrypted. Solution must natively support modern authenticated encryption. Files metadata must also be encrypted. …

It’s very simple (but not documented) for byte arrays of 1 to 32 elements:

use rand::Rng;

fn main() {
let random_bytes = rand::thread_rng().gen::<[u8; 32]>();
println!("{:?}", random_bytes);

If you need more than 32 random bytes than this is one way to do it (although I am not sure if it’s optimal):

use rand::Rng;

fn main() {
let random_bytes: Vec<u8> = (0..1024).map(|_| { rand::random::<u8>() }).collect();
println!("{:?}", random_bytes);

I propose a simple test to group cryptocurrencies into “state compatible” and “uncensorable”.

This is to make things transparent for users and investors, so they can consciously pick cryptocurrencies appropriate for their individual needs.

The test covers three areas: payments, data and contracts and runs as follows:

  • Is it possible…

Piotr Włodarek

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